# How to calculate intrinsic value per share for a listed company?

Calculating the intrinsic value of a share of a company involves estimating the value of that share based on fundamental analysis and financial metrics. Here are the general steps to calculate the intrinsic value of a share:

1. Gather Information:
• Collect the company’s financial statements, including the balance sheet, income statement, and cash flow statement.
• Obtain relevant financial data and projections, such as revenue growth rates, earnings forecasts, and dividend expectations.
2. Select a Valuation Model:
• Choose an appropriate valuation model based on the nature of the company and available data. Common methods include:
• Discounted Cash Flow (DCF) Model: Estimates the present value of future cash flows generated by the company.
• Dividend Discount Model (DDM): Estimates the value of the stock based on the present value of future expected dividends.
• Earnings Multiplier Model (P/E, PEG, etc.): Compares the stock’s price to its earnings or growth rate.
3. Calculate Free Cash Flows (DCF Method):
• For the DCF method, estimate the company’s future free cash flows (FCF), which is the cash available to investors after accounting for expenses and investments.
• Project FCF over a certain period (usually 5-10 years) based on historical performance, industry trends, and growth expectations.
4. Determine Discount Rate:
• Select an appropriate discount rate (also called the required rate of return) to discount the future cash flows. This rate should reflect the risk associated with the company and the investment.
5. Calculate Terminal Value:
• Estimate the terminal value, which represents the value of the company beyond the projection period. This can be calculated using various methods like perpetuity growth or exit multiple.
6. Discount Future Cash Flows and Terminal Value:
• Discount the projected future cash flows and terminal value back to their present value using the chosen discount rate.
7. Sum of Present Values:
• Sum the present values of the projected cash flows and terminal value to get the total intrinsic value of the company.
8. Divide Intrinsic Value by Number of Shares:
• Divide the total intrinsic value by the number of shares outstanding to calculate the intrinsic value per share.

It’s important to note that calculating intrinsic value is not an exact science. It requires making assumptions about future performance, interest rates, growth rates, and other variables, all of which can influence the final value. Additionally, different valuation models may yield different results. Moreover, market sentiment and other external factors can also impact a stock’s price.

Investors should approach intrinsic value calculations with a critical and well-informed perspective. If you’re not experienced in financial analysis, you might consider consulting with a financial advisor or professional who can help guide you through the process.

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