1. Computer Software
Computer Software is a sort of program that allows clients to work on different assignments on their system. It tells the working and responsibilities of the System. Basically, Software is a set of instructions or commands that enable a user to get its work done by the computer. Types of computer software are (1) System Software (2) Application Software
2. System Software
System Software is the type of software that is the interface between application software and the Hardware. Low-level languages are used to write the system software. System Software maintains the system resources and gives the path for application software to run. An important thing is that without system software, the system can not run. It is general-purpose software.
(Note: Assembly language and machine language are examples of low-level languages that are still used today in system-level programming. Although low-level languages are difficult to read and write, they are essential for creating software that interacts directly with the computer’s hardware.)
Functions of System Software: –
- Memory Management
- Processor Management
- Ensuring Security of the system
- File Management
Features of System Software:-
- System softwares are written in a low-level language.
- System softwares are complex to understand.
- The size of the system Software is smaller.
- System software is present near hardware components.
Types of System Software:-
A. Operating System:
- Operating System is the main part of the Computer System. It has the responsibility of managing all the resources such as CPU, Printer, Hard Disk, etc. It also provides services to many other Computers Softwares. Examples of Operating Systems are Linux, Apple, macOS, Microsoft Windows, etc.
- Operating system is a software that acts as a layer between the user and hardware and contains many instructions to control hardware and run many software applications.
- An Operating System is a software program that acts as an interface between the hardware, the application software, and the users. There are mainly 5 popular operating systems: Apple macOS, Microsoft Windows, Google’s Android OS, Linux Operating System, and Apple iOS.
- An operating system can be categorized in various aspects, such as (1) according to the technology used: UNIX based, and non-UNIX based, (2) according to the ownership: Mac OS, Microsoft Windows, etc., (3) according to the historical aspect: Microsoft DOS, OS/2, etc
(Note: – UNIX operating system comes with a Command Line Interface (CLI). In contrast, Windows operating system comes with a Graphical User Interface (GUI). Multiprocessing is possible in the UNIX OS. In contrast, multiprocessing is not possible in the Windows operating system)
(UNIX = UNiplexed Information Computing System (not open source)
CLI = Command Line interface
GUI= Graphical user interface
LINUX = Linux is a family of open-source Unix operating systems based on the Linux Kernel)
(Processor is not the operating system but it is a small chip that processes the information received and performs some functions to get desired result)
System Software needed to converts Human-Readable Language/source code into a Machine Language/machine code and it is done by Language Processor. Source code must be translated into machine code before a computer can understand and execute it. Translator program is used to translate source code in machine code. It converts programs into instructions that are easily readable by Machines
C. Device Driver
A Device Driver is a program or software that helps to perform its functions by controlling the device. You first have to install a driver for running the program. For example, If you want to add a printer to your computer then to manage the printer on a PC, you need to install driver of the printer on your computer.
3. Application Software
Application Software is the type of software that runs as per user request. It runs on the platform which is provided by system software. High-level languages are used to write the application software. It’s a specific purpose software. The main difference between System Software and Application Software is that without system software, the system can not run on the other hand without application software, the Low-level maintenance system always runs.
Functions of Application Software:-
- Information management
- Data management
- Document management (document exchange systems)
- Development of visuals and video
- Emails, text messaging, audio, and video conferencing, and cooperation are all options.
- Management of accounting, finance, and payroll
- Resource Management (ERP and CRM systems)
Features of Application Software:-
- Application software requires more storage space than system software.
- Application softwares are written in a high-level language.
- Only a single task is performed by each application software.
- Application Software is easy to build in comparison to system software.
Types of Application Software:-
- General Purpose Software: This Application Software is used to perform tasks that are used for a variety of tasks, just not limited to a specific task only. For Example, MS Word, MS Excel, etc.
- Customized Software: It is used to perform tasks that are designed for specific organizations. For Example, Railway Reservation System, Airline Reservation System, etc
- Utility Software: It is used to support the architecture of the Computer. It is designed for optimizing and maintaining the system and also taking care of its requirements.
4. Difference between system software and Application software
|System Software||Application Software|
|System Software maintains the system resources and gives the path for application software to run.||Application software is built for specific tasks.|
|Low-level languages are used to write the system software.||While high-level languages are used to write the application software.|
|It is general-purpose software.||While it’s a specific purpose software.|
|Without system software, the system stops and can’t run.||While Without application software system always runs.|
|System software runs when the system is turned on and stops when the system is turned off.||While application software runs as per the user’s request.|
|Example: System software is an operating system, etc.||Example: Application software is Photoshop, VLC player, etc.|
|System Software programming is more complex than application software.||Application software programming is simpler in comparison to system software.|
|The Software that is designed to control, integrate and manage the individual hardware components and application software is known as system software.||A set of computer programs installed in the user’s system and designed to perform a specific task is known as application software.|
|A system software operates the system in the background until the shutdown of the computer.||Application software runs in the front end according to the user’s request.|
|The system software has no interaction with users. It serves as an interface between hardware and the end user.||Application software connects an intermediary between the user and the computer.|
|System software runs independently.||Application software is dependent on system software because they need a set platform for its functioning.|
5. Low level programming languages
Low-level language can be understood as the programming languages that are much closer to the machine’s architecture. These languages are not easily understandable by humans and provide a direct way to communicate with computer hardware. In many cases, they are used to write system-level software like firmware, operating systems, and device drivers.
There are mainly two low-level language examples and they are basically the category in which we divide the low-level language they are:-
- Machine Language: They include binary Codes.
- Assembly Language: Uses mnemonic codes
Machine language is the lowest-level programming language. It is a binary code consisting of 0s and 1s that the computer can directly execute. The machine language instructions are specific to the computer’s architecture, and they vary from one computer to another. Machine language is not practical for human programmers to use, but it is still used by the computer’s hardware to execute instructions. (eg 01001000 01100101 01101100 01101100 01101111 means Hello)
Assembly language is a low-level programming language that uses mnemonic codes to represent machine language instructions. These mnemonic codes are easier to read and remember than binary codes. Assembly language is specific to the computer’s architecture, and it must be translated into machine language before the computer can execute it. Assembly language is still used today in system-level programming, such as device drivers and embedded systems.(eg
MOV AX, 0005h)
(This instruction moves the value "0005h" into the AX register. The AX register is a 16-bit register used for arithmetic operations in the x86 architecture. Assembly language is still used today in system-level programming, such as device drivers and embedded systems.)
(Note :- Even though C and C++ are regarded as high-level computer languages, they have characteristics that let developers write low-level code. Because it has characteristics like direct memory access and pointer manipulation that enable coders to create low-level code as well as higher-level entities like functions and structures, C is frequently referred to as a mid-level language. In addition to providing extra elements like classes, object-oriented programming, and templates, C++ is a superset of C. Despite having features like direct memory manipulation that enable coders to create low-level code, C++ is usually regarded as a high-level language due to its extra abstractions and features.
Java, Java Script, Ruby, C, C++, R prog, Python, PHP, Perl, C#, SQL, Rust, Swift, Fortran, Lisp, COBOL, Scala, Ada, Kotlin, Julia, Objective-C, MATLAB, Go, BASIC, Prolog, TypeScript, CSS, VisualBasic all are high level languages.)
Advantages of Low-Level Language:-
- They are better at performance compared to high-level languages as they provide direct control over the computer’s hardware.
- They are better at memory management as the programmers can manage the computer memory directly which results in faster execution times.
- We can write highly efficient code in low-level languages and that code is used in software that requires high efficiency.
- Debugging is comparatively easy in low-level language as it is closer to hardware.
Disadvantages of Low-Level Languages:-
- The programmers must know deeply about computer hardware, how it works and operates, and which languages are used to interact with it.
- The programmers have to write the code for hardware which means there is no space for error so they have to write error-free code.
- They are sometimes time-consuming because we need to manage the memory and complexity of the instructions.
- They are comparatively less portable than high-level languages as they have to be hardware specific.
Low-level languages provide a direct way of communicating with the computer’s hardware. They are not easily understood by humans, but they are necessary for writing system-level software. Assembly language and machine language are examples of low-level languages that are still used today in system-level programming. Although low-level languages are difficult to read and write, they are essential for creating software that interacts directly with the computer’s hardware.
6. High Level Programming Languages
High-level languages are programming languages that allow humans to write computer programs and interact with computer systems without having to know anything about the processor or hardware that the program will run on. High-level languages use command words and syntax that are similar to everyday language, making them easier to learn and apply. High-level languages also provide developers with development tools like libraries and built-in functions.
The instructions that tell a computer what to do are written in machine code. Machine code is a series of numbers written in binary. Each number represents a different instruction. Programmers find machine code difficult to learn, program in and debug. As a result, the majority of programmers write programs in high-level programming languages. These languages are close to natural language – the spoken and written language of humans. For example, Python uses ‘print’, ‘if’, ‘input’ and ‘while’ statements – all words from the English language – to form instructions. In fact, instructions often look like abbreviated English sentences. Programmers write in high-level languages because they are easier to understand and are less complex than machine code. They allow the programmer to focus on what needs to be done, rather than on how the computer actually works.For example, in many high-level languages, to place a message on the screen, a programmer would use the statement ‘print’. The programmer might not know how the computer actually generates the message. They just need to know how to use the ‘print’ statement.
Source code is the term given to a set of instructions that are written in human readable programming language. Source code must be translated into machine code before a computer can understand and execute it. Translator program is used to translate source code in machine code.
Java, Java Script, Ruby, C, C++, R prog, Python, PHP, Perl, C#, SQL, Rust, Swift, Fortran, Lisp, COBOL, Scala, Ada, Kotlin, Julia, Objective-C, MATLAB, Go, BASIC, Prolog, TypeScript, CSS, VisualBasic all are high level languages.
High-level programming languages have revolutionised the way we develop software applications. They offer many advantages over low-level languages, including ease of use, portability, and efficiency. However, they also have some disadvantages, such as slower execution and higher memory usage. It is important to choose the right programming language for a particular project, taking into account its advantages and disadvantages, and the specific needs of the application.
7. What Are Open-Source Programming Languages.
Open-source programming languages are not owned by anyone. They are easily available, they are usually maintained by a community, and on many occasions, they are also freely distributed under different open-source licenses. Some of the most used open source programming languages are given here:-
Python is a server-side language that has a wide range of applications to boast about. Be it simple scripting or advanced web applications, Python has got you covered. Python has made it way easier for the developers to use various programming styles including reflecting, functional, etc. It is considered one of the easiest and most marketable programming languages to learn. Python is an interpreted, object-oriented, high-level programming language with dynamic semantics. Its high-level built-in data structures, combined with dynamic typing and dynamic binding, make it very desirable for Rapid Application Development, as well as for use as a scripting or glue language to connect existing components together. Python’s simple, easy-to-learn syntax emphasizes readability, lowering the cost of program maintenance. Python supports modules and packages, which promotes program modularity and code reuse. The Python interpreter and extensive standard library are freely distributable and available in source or binary form for all major platforms.
Go, as known to many, is a programming language developed by Google. In no time, Go has garnered attention from everywhere across the globe because of its ability to handle multicore and networked systems and massive codebases. No wonder why Golang is one of the best programming languages for earnings and opportunities.
Yet another excellent programming language to learn for web development, application development, and big data is Java. This is a general-purpose programming language with an object-oriented structure that is owned by Oracle Corporation. Java is a high-level, object-oriented programming language that was originally developed by Sun Microsystems (now owned by Oracle Corporation) in the mid-1990s. It is designed to be platform-independent, which means that programs written in Java can run on any platform that supports a Java Virtual Machine (JVM).Java is widely used for developing enterprise applications, web applications, and mobile applications. It provides a rich set of libraries and frameworks that make it easy to develop complex applications. Some of the key features of Java include automatic memory management, garbage collection, and exception handling.
The very ability of C# to support the concepts of object-oriented programming is one of the major reasons behind its increasing popularity. Considered to be ideal for applications on Windows, Android, and iOS, no wonder C# makes it to the list of top 10 best programming languages for earnings and opportunities.
R is that one programming language that is extensively used for processing statistics, including linear and nonlinear modeling, calculation, testing, visualization, and analysis. Evidently, it has opened up doors of opportunities ever since it came into existence.
With features such as data abstraction, polymorphism, inheritance, etc., you know for a fact that C++ has everything needed for good earnings as well as opportunities in your programming career. This language is widely used in desktop application development, GUI application development, 3D game development, and building real-time mathematical solutions. C++ is a statically typed, compiled, general-purpose, case-sensitive, free-form programming language that can be used to write procedural, object-oriented, and generic code.C++ is classified as a middle-level language because it combines high-level and low-level language features.C++ was created by Bjarne Stroustrup in 1979 at Bell Labs in Murray Hill, New Jersey, as an enhancement to the C language. It was initially called C with Classes before being renamed C++ in 1983.C++ is a superset of C, which means that almost any legal C program is also a legal C++ program.C++ supports object-oriented programming, allowing developers to create classes and objects, as well as define methods and properties for these objects. Templates: C++ templates enable developers to write generic code that can work with any data type, making reusable and flexible code easier to write.
STL (Standard Template Library): The STL provides a diverse set of data containers and algorithms, making it easier to write efficient and effective code
C was created in order to create the UNIX operating system. C is also a portable language, which means that programs written in C can be compiled to run on different platforms and operating systems. This is possible because C compilers are available for many different architectures and operating systems.
C is the successor to the B language, which was first introduced in the early 1970s.
The American National Standard Institute formalized the language in 1988. (ANSI).
The UNIX operating system was entirely written in C. Today, C is the most popular and widely used System Programming Language.
The majority of cutting-edge software has been written in C. The most popular Linux operating system and RDBMS, MySQL, were written in C
Despite the fact that Swift is a relatively new language, it does find its spot in the top 10 open-source programming languages because of its speed, performance, and security. Additionally, Swift is an easy language to learn.
Kotlin is an open-source programming language that is high in demand these days. Companies such as Netflix, Pinterest, and Amazon Web Services make use of this language because of its features such as support for lambda functions, smart casts, null safety, and operator overloading.
Ruby is highly preferred by web developers as it has a syntax that is easy to read and write. Yet another point that is worth a mention is that its object-oriented architecture supports procedural and functional programming notation.