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The concept of Other Comprehensive income under IFRS with comparison with Ind-AS.

Other Comprehensive Income (OCI) refers to revenues, expenses, gains, and losses that are not included in net income on the income statement, but instead are reported in a separate component of shareholders’ equity called accumulated other comprehensive income. This concept is part of a broader accounting framework that aims to provide a more comprehensive picture of an entity’s financial performance and position beyond what the traditional net income figure can offer.

The items included in OCI are typically those that have not yet been realized or whose recognition in net income is deferred to avoid significant volatility in the reported earnings. Once realized, these items may be reclassified from OCI to profit or loss (net income).

Items Commonly Reported in Other Comprehensive Income:

  • Foreign Currency Translation Adjustments: Gains and losses resulting from translating the financial statements of a foreign operation into the reporting currency.
  • Unrealized Gains and Losses on Available-for-Sale Financial Assets: Increases or decreases in the fair value of available-for-sale financial assets that are not yet sold.
  • Cash Flow Hedges: Gains and losses from hedging instruments in a cash flow hedge that are effective in offsetting changes in cash flows of hedged items.
  • Gains and Losses on Remeasuring Defined Benefit Pension Plans: Adjustments related to actuarial gains and losses on defined benefit pension plans, and changes in the asset ceiling.
  • Gains and Losses from Investments in Equity Instruments: Under IFRS 9, entities can choose to classify certain equity investments at fair value through other comprehensive income, with gains and losses not being transferred to profit or loss upon disposal.

Reporting Other Comprehensive Income:

OCI can be presented in one of two ways in the financial statements:

  • Within a Single Statement of Comprehensive Income: This approach combines the income statement and OCI into one continuous statement, starting with net income and then listing the OCI items to arrive at total comprehensive income.
  • In a Separate Statement of Comprehensive Income: This method involves presenting the income statement and OCI as two consecutive statements, with the income statement ending in net income, and a separate statement beginning with net income and reconciling to total comprehensive income.

Importance of Other Comprehensive Income:

OCI provides valuable information about the elements of a company’s financial performance that are not captured in net income alone. By including OCI in the financial statements, stakeholders get a fuller understanding of all the economic effects on the company’s equity that have not been realized in cash. This helps in making more informed decisions regarding the company’s financial health and performance.

It’s important to note that while OCI items can have a significant impact on a company’s equity, they are typically excluded from earnings per share calculations and may not directly affect cash flow in the short term.

Other Comprehensive Income under IND-AS

The concept of Other Comprehensive Income (OCI) under Indian Accounting Standards (Ind AS) is similar to that under International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS). Ind AS, which is largely converged with IFRS, includes OCI as a component of the total comprehensive income to provide a more complete picture of a company’s financial performance over a period.

Key Aspects of OCI in Ind AS:

  • Components: Like IFRS, OCI in Ind AS comprises items of income and expense (including reclassifications to profit or loss) that are not recognized in profit or loss as required or permitted by other Ind AS. This includes items such as foreign currency translation differences, gains and losses on revaluation of certain financial assets, actuarial gains and losses on defined benefit plans, and effective portion of gains and losses on hedging instruments in a cash flow hedge.
  • Presentation: Entities can present OCI either in a single statement of profit and loss and other comprehensive income, where all items of income and expense recognized in a period are presented in two sections: profit or loss and OCI; or in two separate statements: a statement showing profit or loss and another showing items of OCI.
  • Reclassification: Some items recognized in OCI may be reclassified to profit or loss in subsequent periods when specific conditions are met. For example, gains and losses on available-for-sale financial assets may be reclassified upon disposal of the asset.
  • Reporting Standards: The requirement to report OCI is embedded within various Ind AS standards, similar to how it is integrated within IFRS. Ind AS 1, Presentation of Financial Statements, provides guidance on the presentation of OCI.

Similarities and Differences with IFRS:

While the fundamental concept of OCI under Ind AS and IFRS is the same, there may be minor differences in specific items included in OCI or in the presentation and disclosure requirements, reflecting the customization of Ind AS to align with the Indian regulatory and economic environment. However, these differences are relatively minor, and the overarching principles and objectives remain aligned with IFRS to ensure that financial statements prepared under Ind AS are globally comparable.


The introduction of OCI under Ind AS was a significant step towards aligning Indian accounting practices with global standards, enhancing the transparency and comparability of financial statements. By capturing items of income and expense that are not included in profit or loss, OCI helps stakeholders gain a comprehensive understanding of a company’s financial performance and the total changes in equity, other than those arising from transactions with equity investors.

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